Childhood domination, Coping compensation. Fifty years of scientific studies on child adoption resulting in psychological harm to the child and poor outcomes for a child's future. Medical and psychological attempts to heal the broken bonds of adoption, promote reunions of biological parents and adult children. The other half of attempting to repair a severed Identity is counselling therapy to rebuild the self.
An outline of the above mentioned two theories will be given and how it informs knowledge of human development.
I will go on to critically discuss the links to social work practice. In conclusion, I will demonstrate application of attachment theory to social work practice. Attachment theory Bowlby Howe et al asserts that attachment is viewed as a biological response designed to get children The attachment and adoption psychology essay close, protective relationships.
Bowlby outlined four phases of the development of attachment as an integrated system of behaviours in infants: Due to this and newly acquired motor skills, the infant now readily seeks the proximity to the caregiver.
The Attachment And Adoption Psychology Essay Attachment can be defined as the strong preference of a person to be in close proximity to another specific person and to feel comfortable when 9 Pages (3, Words) - Last Modified: 23rd March, The attachment experience affects personality development, particularly a sense of security, and research shows that it influences the ability to form stable relationships throughout life. The importance of early infant attachment cannot be overstated. It is at the heart of healthy child development and lays the foundation for relating intimately with others, including spouses and children.
Bowlby, cited in Beckett However, there are three types of insecure attachment which are listed by Wilson et al as insecure avoidant attachment group A, insecure ambivalent attachment group C and insecure disorganised or disoriented attachment group D each of which has a consequence of undesirable responses.
As Howe highlights, this attachment experience fosters security, it gives a sense of worth, faith in the helpfulness of others.
According to Howethe child builds internal working models of the world and of himself in it, with the aid of which he perceives events, forecasts the future, constructs his plans and works as mitigation in times of trauma by forming resilience mechanisms.
However, insecure attachment is contrary to this. Insecure-avoidant group A develops from a disengaged parenting style. The child who fits into this category shows odd behaviour. As Howe et al points out, a common characteristic of these children is that they cry a lot, show more distress and are not enthusiastic about physical contact.
The children were filled with anxiety before separation from mother, got upset when the mother left and were ambivalent when she returned.
They view a caregiver as unpredictable, rejecting and violent at times. Children who fall in this category are flooded with emotions of fear and anger Main and Solomon Application of attachment theory to social work practice This theory therefore provides social workers with part of the model of analysis in judging the quality of relationships Walker and Crawford Walker and Crawford ; 54 claim this to be essential in knowing when to intervene or even remove a child where there are concerns in relation to risks of insecure attachment.
As Gerhart elucidates, children can recover from abuse or other negative experiences even though it is more difficult for those who have been seriously maltreated. According to Doherty and Hughes early intervention with children who display discipline problems and problematic behaviours such as noncompliance, temper loss and aggression is very important and must be applied early.
Howe affirms that intervention to dissuade aggressive behaviour at a later time can be less effectual because adolescents become increasingly refractory to behavioural management therapies. Howe asserts that these attachment characteristics portrayed will help practitioners to gather useful information to be analysed and evaluated so as to make neither non-judgemental nor non oppressive decisions.
As Thompson notes, failure to obtain enough information is an example of ineffective practice which can lead to biased decisions being made. The attachment theory highlights the behaviour of parents in both secure and insecure situations.
Even the Children Act rests on the belief that children are generally best looked after within the family with both parents playing a full part without resorting to legal proceedings Wilson et al Therefore, it is important that practitioners dismiss preconceived biases and stereotypical judgements but should develop anti oppressive ethos Thompson Thus Neaum makes it clear that, children forming attachments and forming relationships with others is equally important as with the mother.
Feminist movements would argue that the theory is oppressive and gender biased. Taking into consideration that the attachment observation was based on few minutes of behaviour can make it difficult to recognise relevant qualities of attachment.
This same concept may not provide the same anxiety every child. Howe acknowledges that children are distinct and unique individuals with dissimilar feelings and experiences, hence their development should be considered on individual basis.
Difficulties may arise, however, when attempting to implement the procedure to children whose cultural norms, values beliefs and background differ. In some cultures, young children are left for a long time as training for independence while others identify a greater emphasis on maintaining relationships.The belief that child-parent attachment plays an im- the association between attachment and socialization have largely been invalidated by empirical research.
psychology have been his insights regarding the na-ture, significance, and interrelatedness of early at-. Attachment theory explains how the parent-child relationship emerges and influences subsequent development.
Attachment theory in psychology originates with the seminal work of John Bowlby (). In the ’s John Bowlby worked as a psychiatrist in a Child Guidance Clinic in London, where he treated many emotionally disturbed children.
Apr 02, · The Attachment And Adoption Psychology Essay Attachment can be defined as the strong preference of a person to be in close proximity to another specific person and to feel comfortable when close to the person and distressed when separated from the person (Watson, M.
W.). Attachment indubitably affects children in terms of cognition, behavior, emotional responses, personality, and social skills. Failure to meet the baby or child’s attachment needs results into attachment difficulties which significantly affect children’s learning and development.
The importance of early infant attachment cannot be overstated. It is at the heart of healthy child development and lays the foundation for relating intimately with others, including spouses and children. Jan 08, · Attachment Theory Final PDF Topic 2: Attachment theory and research Children need a relationship with a caregiver who is sensitive and responsive, who comforts the child when distressed and enables them to feel safe enough to relax, play and learn.