Deep hole drilling[ edit ] Blast hole several meters long, drilled in granite Deep hole drilling is defined as a hole depth greater than ten times the diameter of the hole. Other considerations are roundness and surface finish. Deep hole drilling is generally achievable with a few tooling methods, usually gun drilling or BTA drilling. These are differentiated due to the coolant entry method internal or external and chip removal method internal or external.
History[ edit ] Through-hole devices mounted on the circuit board of a mids home computer. Axial-lead devices are at upper left, while blue radial-lead capacitors are at Radial drilling right Through-hole technology almost completely replaced earlier electronics assembly techniques such as point-to-point construction.
From the second generation of computers in the s until surface-mount technology SMT became popular in the late s, every component on a typical PCB was a through-hole component. PCBs initially had tracks printed on one side only, later both sides, then multi-layer boards were in use.
Through holes became plated-through holes PTH in order for the components to make contact with the required conductive layers. Plated-through holes are no longer required with SMT boards for making the component connections, but are still used for making interconnections between the layers and in this role are more usually called vias.
Axial leads protrude from each Radial drilling of a typically cylindrical or elongated box-shaped component, on the geometrical axis of symmetry. Axial-leaded components resemble wire jumpers in shape, and can be used to span short distances on a board, or even otherwise unsupported through an open space in point-to-point wiring.
Axial components do not protrude much above the surface of a board, producing a low-profile or flat configuration when placed "lying down" or parallel to the board.
Originally, radial leads were defined as more-or-less following a radius of a cylindrical component such as a ceramic disk capacitor. When placed on a board, radial components "stand up" perpendicular,   occupying a smaller footprint on sometimes-scarce "board real estate", making them useful in many high-density designs.
The parallel leads projecting from a single mounting surface gives radial components an overall "plugin nature", facilitating their use in high-speed automated component insertion "board-stuffing" machines.
Components like integrated circuits can have upwards of dozens of leads, or pins When needed, an axial component can be effectively converted into a radial component, by bending one of its leads into a "U" shape so that it ends up close to and parallel with the other lead.
Conversely, a radial component can be pressed into service as an axial component by separating its leads as far as possible, and extending them into an overall length-spanning shape. These improvisations are often seen in breadboard or prototype construction, but are deprecated for mass production designs.
This is because of difficulties in use with automated component placement machineryand poorer reliability because of reduced vibration and mechanical shock resistance in the completed assembly.
Multiple lead devices[ edit ] For electronic components with more than two leads, for example ICs or resistor packs, various semiconductor packages such as single or dual in-line packages are used, either directly onto the PCB or via a socket.
Characteristics[ edit ] A box of drill bits used for making holes in printed circuit boards. While tungsten-carbide bits are very hard, they eventually wear out or break. Making holes is a considerable part of the cost of a through-hole printed circuit board. While through-hole mounting provides strong mechanical bonds when compared to SMT techniques, the additional drilling required makes the boards more expensive to produce.
They also limit the available routing area for signal traces on layers immediately below the top layer on multilayer boards since the holes must pass through all layers to the opposite side. To that end, through-hole mounting techniques are now usually reserved for bulkier or heavier components such as electrolytic capacitors or semiconductors in larger packages such as the TO that require the additional mounting strength, or for components such as plug connectors or electromechanical relays that require great strength in support.
However, high-speed or high-frequency designs may require SMT technology to minimize stray inductance and capacitance in wire leads, which would impair circuit function.
Ultra-compact designs may also dictate SMT construction, even in the prototype phase of design.Radial Drilling. Radial drilling technology produces enhancement of producing and shot off wells by using high pressure fluids to “drill” radial channels out from the existing bore up to feet.
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