Lee surrendered to Union forces at Appomattox, putting an end to the bloodiest war in American history.
At its most basic, strategy is simply a matter of figuring out what we need to achieve, determining the best way to use the resources at our disposal to achieve it, then executing the plan. Unfortunately, in the practical world of politics and war, none of these things are easily done.
Our goals are complex, sometimes contradictory, and many-sided. They often change in the middle of a war.
The resources at our disposal are not always obvious, can change during the course of a struggle, and usually need to be adapted to suit our needs. And the enemy is often annoyingly uncooperative, refusing to fit our preconceptions of him or to stand still while we erect the apparatus for his destruction.
Let us start by analyzing one of the best known, most insightful, and least understood definitions of war ever written. Most readers have seen it before, in one form or the other. Most military professionals accept this famous aphorism—albeit sometimes reluctantly—as a given truth. And yet, the words "policy" and "politics," as we use them in the English language, mean very different things.
The choice of one of these words over the other in translating Clausewitz's famous definition of war reflects a powerful psychological bias, a crucial difference in our views of the nature of reality.
We must understand both relationships—between war and policy, and between war and politics. To focus on the first without an appreciation for the second is to get a distorted notion of the fundamental character of war.
War is a social phenomenon. Its logic is not the logic of art, nor that of science or engineering, but rather the logic of social transactions. Human beings, because they are intelligent, creative, and emotional, interact with each other in ways that are fundamentally different from the ways in which the scientist interacts with chemicals, the architect or engineer with beams and girders, or the artist with paints or musical notes.
The interaction we are concerned with when we speak of war is political interaction. The "other means" in Clausewitz's definition of war is organized violence. The addition of violence to political interaction is the only factor that defines war as a distinct form of politics—but that addition has powerful and unique effects.
While every specific war has its unique causes, which the strategist must strive to understand, war as a whole has no general cause other than mankind's innate desire for power.
Thucydides, the ancient Greek historian of the disastrous Peloponnesian War, recounted an Athenian statement to that effect. We have done nothing extraordinary, nothing contrary to human nature in accepting an empire when it was offered to us and then in refusing to give it up.
Three very powerful motives prevent us from doing so—security, honor, and self-interest. It has always been a rule that the weak should be subject to the strong; and besides, we consider that we are worthy of our power. The resort to naked force is the only way to determine the truth. Power is just as often psychological in nature: Power provides the means to attack, but it also provides the means to resist attack.
Power in itself is therefore neither good nor evil.[Content warning: Discussion of social justice, discussion of violence, spoilers for Jacqueline Carey books.] [Edit 10/ This post was inspired by a debate with a friend of a friend on Facebook who has since become somewhat famous. - The Reconstruction of America After the Civil War At the close of the American Civil War in , the United States’ government was faced with the tremendously difficult problem of re-integrating the Confederate States into the Union.
Civil War Reconstruction Era Essays More of the teacher is not treated as of old, effort, periods of time, whereas you could answer the question of social justice. References achiam, m. F. Williams, s. M. Assessing for deep knowledge.
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Nov 20, · Essay on The Civil War and Reconstruction.
At the same time, the outcomes of the Civil War and Reconstruction were disappointing to a large part of the US population, especially slave, whose liberation was one of the major drivers of the Civil War, but the Reconstruction granted them with basic rights and liberties.
The Reformation (more fully the Protestant Reformation, or the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th-century Europe..
It is usually considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Martin Luther in and lasted until the end of the.