By Kent Farfield Historically, there has been no long term relief for chronic sufferers of herpes simplex infections, let alone a cure. Herpes sufferers are seemingly at the mercy of this viral menace. Despite failure at the eradication of the herpes virus, success in the short term by temporarily suppressing its proliferation has yielded positive results. One such agent, acyclovir, a nucleoside analogue,has been regarded as the drug of choice by the medical community.
Several challenges, including the supply problem and target identification, need to be met for successful drug development of these often complex molecules; however, approaches are available to overcome the hurdles. Advances in technologies such as sampling strategies, nanoscale NMR for structure determination, total chemical synthesis, fermentation and biotechnology are all crucial to the success of marine natural products as drug leads.
We illustrate the high degree of innovation in the field of marine natural products, which in our view will lead to a new wave of drugs that flow into the market and pharmacies in the future.
Nature is an ancient pharmacy that used to be the solitary source of therapeutics for the early eras. This attention was further biased towards synthetic drugs with the development of high-throughput screening technologies. The ability to test a large number of chemical entities in a certain assay at the same time required a larger and faster supply of compound Marine organisms and other novel natural.
Combinatorial chemistry fulfilled this latter requirement and preceded natural products in this specific obligation and thus was more tempting for drug discovery. Natural products are often structurally complex compounds that possess a well-defined spatial orientation.
Those chemical compounds evolved to interact efficiently with their biological targets; therefore, they occupy a biologically relevant chemical space and represent validated starting points for drug discovery. Moreover, the ingenuity of natural products allowed them to occupy a significant market share as well as a special preference by the consumers.
Approximately half of all new drugs in the time frame reported are of natural product origin or designed on the basis of natural product structures [ 5 ] and approximately half of the 20 best-selling nonprotein drugs are related to natural products [ 6 ].
Almost all of the current natural product-derived therapeutics have terrestrial origins.
However, mining novel sources, such as the marine environment, will clear the way for chemical and biological novelties as well. A comparative analysis by Kong and co-workers showed that marine natural products are superior to terrestrial natural products in terms of chemical novelty [ 7 ].
In addition, marine organisms show higher incidence of significant bioactivity compared with terrestrial organisms. Furthermore, the first marine drugs have successfully made it to the market, and there are several others in different phases of clinical trials.
Cytarabine Ara-C and vidarabine Ara-A Figure 1the first FDA-approved marine-derived drugs, are synthetic pyrimidine and purine nucleosides, respectively, developed from naturally occurring nucleosides originally isolated from the Caribbean sponge Tethya crypta.
Cytarabine was approved by the FDA in as an anticancer drug, while vidarabine was approved in as an antiviral agent. It is a synthetic equivalent of a naturally occurring peptide isolated from the venom of the cone snail Conus magus.
Trabectedin is a marine alkaloid isolated from the marine tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinata that was registered in [ 9 ].
This totally synthesized drug is a structurally simplified macro-cyclic ketone analogue of the potent cytotoxic compound halichondrin B, which was first isolated from the marine sponge Halichondria okadai in On their way to the market, there are 12 other marine or marine-derived drugs in clinical trials [ 9 ].
The former is a dolastatin 10 synthetic derivative in Phase III clinical trials, which is developed as an antibody—drug conjugate, while the latter is a synthetic dolastatin 15 derivative in Phase II clinical trials that is orally active.
In addition, there is a continuous supply of auspicious candidates in the preclinical pipeline, which is continuously feeding the clinical pipeline. Promisingly, the number of new marine compounds reported each year is increasing, and more than new compounds with different potencies and biological activities have been reported each year for the past couple of years [ 1112 ].
Marine natural products and their pharmacology have been reviewed by others [ 11 — 16 ] and we do not intend to comprehensively review this here.acquired trait: A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation (for example, the large.
In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which new candidate medications are discovered.
Historically, drugs were discovered through identifying the active ingredient from traditional remedies or by serendipitous discovery. Later chemical libraries of synthetic small molecules, natural products or extracts were screened in intact cells or.
Unique medicinal properties of coral reef organisms were recognized by Eastern cultures as early as the 14th century, and some species continue to be in high demand for traditional medicines.
The development and marketing of novel marine bioproducts can be achieved without depleting the resource or disrupting the ecosystem, but it requires. Marine biology is the scientific study of marine life, organisms in the sea. Given that in biology many phyla, families and genera have some species that live in the sea and others that live on land, marine biology classifies species based on the environment rather than on taxonomy.
Each quick dissolving capsule provides mg of Wild Harvested Dumontiaceae Red Marine Algae. As a food supplement or antiviral agent, take 4 capsules on an empty stomach for 10 - 30 consecutive days on the first sign of viral breakout.
Marine organisms and other novel natural sources of new cancer drugs Gilberto Schwartsmann South-American Office for Anticancer Drug Development (SOAD), Comprehensive Cancer Centre (CINCAN), The Lutheran University (ULBRA) & Postgraduate Course in Medicine (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil Introduction.