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It is as if it is a newfound truth on how the educational system could rise from decades of slide.
Every so often, critical thinking is raised as a reform goal. Yet, it is the Education for All Philippine Plan of Action that underlined the modern need for critical thinking to address the ills of the Philippine educational system. In truth, the problem of lack of critical thinking among Filipino students goes way back, from Spanish colonial times, to the time of the Thomasites during the American occupation, to the post-war Philippines before, during and after martial law.
This problem persists up to now. This is also exhibited by students preferring memory work over problems that demand the use of reasoning.
The idea of critical thinking is as old as philosophy itself.
It should make us wonder why critical thinking has not taken root in our educational system despite the critical thinking philosophy with which we should be so familiar. The Philippines supposedly has a westernized educational system informed by western philosophy. It embraced this system as a result of its colonial experience.
Plato and Aristotle later emphasized the need for systematic thinking that looks beyond the surface. The tradition of critical thinking continued with Aquinas during the Middle Ages, applying the test of critical thought in defending traditional church ideas. During the Renaissance, Machiavelli critiqued the politics of Italy, thereby establishing the foundation of modern political critical thought.
Bacon, likewise, contributed ideas in developing the concept of the scientific method that remains very strong up to now. Descartes, meanwhile, focused on the need to discipline the mind by favoring clear and precise assumptions in thinking. Moore did his part by emphasizing the need to analyze and critique parts of social systems.
Locke explored the limits of human understanding, eventually developing that knowledge is constructed using our senses. Hobbes also contributed to the discourse by developing the idea of a social contract, where the tie between the government and the governed is not the sort that comes from a divine right or myth but the rational consent given by the people.
Newton furthered the logic against an earth-centric model of the universe by arguing in favor of knowledge from evidence and reasoning.
Nineteenth century thought continued the exploration on critical thinking with Marx, rejecting the idealist conception of history in favor of a materialist one.
He viewed society as composed of classes whereby the control of production by the upper class makes the lower classes acquire a false consciousness of their true conditions. In the 20th century, critical thinking was explored by education philosophers.
John Dewey stated that goals and objectives of humans are grounded on pragmatic considerations. Finally, Jean Piaget developed a sociological model of child development.
He theorized that children's thinking move from being intuitive to one that is socially accepted as they grow older and mature cognitively.
From 16th century Spanish colonial period up to the present, students have not transcended rote memorization plaguing Philippine schools. While memory plays a crucial role in educating children, mere memorization of lessons is not tantamount to the learning that is needed in the 21st century.the irony of lack of critical thinking This general lack of critical thinking in the whole educational system is best exemplified by the pedagogy of schools leaning towards rote memorization.
This is also exhibited by students preferring memory work over problems that demand the use of reasoning. The Association of American Colleges and Universities, Standards for Accreditation of Medical Education Program, Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Standards and Guidelines for the Professional Program in Pharmacy, American Dental Education Association, and many more organizations list critical thinking as a major intellectual and practical skill, particularly in the area of health science education (Rowles, .
Critical thinking skills are an important tool, especially when it comes to personal beliefs and academics. When applied, critical thinking is a powerful defense against ideas and opinions that are potentially harmful or blatantly wrong.
Unfortunately, not everyone possesses this ability, although. Critical thinking skills are an important tool, especially when it comes to personal beliefs and academics.
When applied, critical thinking is a powerful defense against ideas and opinions that are potentially harmful or blatantly wrong. Nov 16, · In a speech to mark World Philosophy Day, the President criticised what he called a “deep anti-intellectualism” in the media and a lack of critical thinking in schools and society.
Aug 15, · School-based nurturance of this development will lead to students' autonomous critical thinking and their formation as responsible citizens.
We must invest in the education of our youth.