Existentialist thought was introduced through literary works written by such masters as Sartre, Camus and Dostoevsky Wingo, Danish philosopher Soren Kierkegaard insisted that one controls one's own life, that one has complete freedom "to choose and become what he wills himself to become" p. Jean-Paul Sartre stated that "the human project…is to create by free choice a life that is noble and beautiful self-construction" Gutek,p.
Existence precedes essence Sartre claimed that a central proposition of Existentialism is that existence precedes essencewhich means that the most important consideration for individuals is that they are individuals—independently acting and responsible, conscious beings "existence" —rather than what labels, roles, stereotypes, definitions, or other preconceived categories the individuals fit "essence".
The actual life of the individuals is what constitutes what could be called their "true essence" instead of there being an arbitrarily attributed essence others use to define them.
Thus, human beings, through their own consciousnesscreate their own values and determine a meaning to their life. His form must be just as manifold as are the opposites that he holds together.
The systematic eins, zwei, drei is an abstract form that also must inevitably run into trouble whenever it is to be applied to the concrete.
To the same degree as the subjective thinker is concrete, to the same degree his form must also be concretely dialectical. But just as he himself is not a poet, not an ethicist, not a dialectician, so also his form is none of these directly.
His form must first and last be related to existence, and in this regard he must have at his disposal the poetic, the ethical, the dialectical, the religious. Subordinate character, setting, etc. The setting is not the fairyland of the imagination, where poetry produces consummation, nor is the setting laid in England, and historical accuracy is not a concern.
The setting is inwardness in existing as a human being; the concretion is the relation of the existence-categories to one another. Historical accuracy and historical actuality are breadth. Instead, the phrase should be taken to say that people are 1 defined only insofar as they act and 2 that they are responsible for their actions.
For example, someone who acts cruelly towards other people is, by that act, defined as a cruel person. Furthermore, by this action of cruelty, such persons are themselves responsible for their new identity cruel persons.
This is as opposed to their genes, or human nature, bearing the blame. As Sartre says in his lecture Existentialism is a Humanism: The more positive, therapeutic aspect of this is also implied: A person can choose to act in a different way, and to be a good person instead of a cruel person.
In a set of letters, Heidegger implies that Sartre misunderstood him for his own purposes of subjectivism, and that he did not mean that actions take precedence over being so long as those actions were not reflected upon.
This way of living, Heidegger called "average everydayness". Absurdism The notion of the Absurd contains the idea that there is no meaning in the world beyond what meaning we give it. This meaninglessness also encompasses the amorality or "unfairness" of the world.
According to Albert Camus, the world or the human being is not in itself absurd. The concept only emerges through the juxtaposition of the two, where life becomes absurd due to the incompatibility between human beings and the world they inhabit.
These are considered absurd since they issue from human freedom, undermining their foundation outside of themselves. The notion of the Absurd has been prominent in literature throughout history. It is in relation to the concept of the devastating awareness of meaninglessness that Albert Camus claimed that "there is only one truly serious philosophical problem, and that is suicide" in his The Myth of Sisyphus.
The possibility of having everything meaningful break down poses a threat of quietismwhich is inherently against the existentialist philosophy. The ultimate hero of absurdism lives without meaning and faces suicide without succumbing to it.
Facticity Facticity is a concept defined by Sartre in Being and Nothingness as the in-itselfwhich delineates for humans the modalities of being and not being. This can be more easily understood when considering facticity in relation to the temporal dimension of our past: As an example, consider two men, one of whom has no memory of his past and the other who remembers everything.
They both have committed many crimes, but the first man, knowing nothing about this, leads a rather normal life while the second man, feeling trapped by his own past, continues a life of crime, blaming his own past for "trapping" him in this life. There is nothing essential about his committing crimes, but he ascribes this meaning to his past.
Another aspect of facticity is that it entails angstboth in the sense that freedom "produces" angst when limited by facticity, and in the sense that the lack of the possibility of having facticity to "step in" for one to take responsibility for something one has done, also produces angst.
Authenticity Many noted existentialist writers consider the theme of authentic existence important. Authentic existence involves the idea that one has to "create oneself" and then live in accordance with this self.An Essay by Jean-Paul Sartre.
Philosophymagazine. Existentialism. Freedom and Responsibility —Jean-Paul Sartre. Existentialism. I can not refer to it in order to act upon it. Which means that I can neither seek within myself the true condition which will impel me to act, nor apply to a system of ethics for concepts which will permit.
Clio has taught education courses at the college level and has a Ph.D. in curriculum and instruction. Compare and contrast the concepts of facticity and authenticity within . New Theistic Natural Existentialism Essay Words | 6 Pages worldview is a combination between new age, traditional theism, naturalism, and theistic existentialism called .
Existentialism Essay. Notes on Existentialism Compiled for PSY (Fall ) Existentialism provides a moving account of the agony of being in the world.
My Philosophy of Education Essay. the reason for that is because existentialism is a very modern idea and both have been a "break either with or within the Western traditions.
Like “rationalism” and “empiricism,” “existentialism” is a term that belongs to intellectual history.
Its definition is thus to some extent one of historical convenience. Existentialism Essay. Determinism and Existentialism in View of Same-Sex Marriage.
Existentialism in Night In his essay “Existentialism”, Jean Paul Sartre discusses the main beliefs of existentialism. Changes Within the Education System; William Shakespeare's Hamlet; Essay on Camus’ The Stranger (The Outsider): Conformity.