Early history In the midnd century BC, a sudden and short-lived climatic change that caused reduced rainfall resulted in several decades of drought in Upper Egypt. The resulting famine and civil strife is believed to have been a major cause of the collapse of the Old Kingdom. An account from the First Intermediate Period states, "All of Upper Egypt was dying of hunger and people were eating their children. The only records obtained are of violence between Portuguese and Africans during the Battle of Mbilwa in
Global use of freshwater, FAO data Global water consumptionby region, in billions m3 per year The total amount of easily accessible freshwater on Earth, in the form of surface water rivers and lakes or groundwater in aquifersfor exampleis Hence, in theory, there is more than enough freshwater available to meet the demands of the current world population of 7 billion people, and even support population growth to 9 billion or more.
Due to the unequal geographical distribution and especially the unequal consumption of water, however, it is a scarce resource in some parts of the world and for some parts of the population. People in developed countries generally use about 10 times more water daily than those in developing countries.
Because many of these production chains have been globalised, a lot of water in developing countries is being used and polluted in order to produce goods destined for consumption in developed countries. According to the United Nations Development Programmethe latter is found more often to be the cause of countries or regions experiencing water scarcity, as most countries or regions have enough water to meet household, industrial, agricultural, and environmental needs, but lack the means to provide it in an accessible manner.
It also occurs where water seems abundant but where resources are over-committed, such as when there is over development of hydraulic infrastructure for irrigation. Symptoms of physical water scarcity include environmental degradation and declining groundwater as well as other forms of exploitation or overuse.
Economic water scarcity includes a lack of infrastructure, causing the people without reliable access to water to have to travel long distances to fetch water, that is often contaminated from rivers for domestic and agricultural uses. Large parts of Africa suffer from economic water scarcity; developing water infrastructure in those areas could therefore help to reduce poverty.
Critical conditions often arise for economically poor and politically weak communities living in already dry environment.
Consumption increases with GDP per capita in most developed countries the average amount is around — litres daily. In underdeveloped countries e. African countries such as Mozambiqueaverage daily water consumption per capita was below 10 L.
Increased water consumption is correlated with increasing income, as measured by GDP per capita. In countries suffering from water shortages water is the subject of speculation. Many children are deprived of an education primarily due to this daily task.
Right to water The United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights established a foundation of five core attributes for water security. They declare that the human right to water entitles everyone to sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible, and affordable water for personal and domestic use.
Millennium Development Goals At the Millennium Summitthe United Nations addressed the effects of economic water scarcity by making increased access to safe drinking water an international development goal. During this time, they drafted the Millennium Development Goals and all UN members agreed on eight goals.
MDG 7 sets a target for reducing the proportion of the population without sustainable safe drinking water access by half by This would mean that more than million people would gain access to a safe source of drinking water.
Inthe Sustainable Development Goals replaced the Millennium Development Goals Effects on environment[ edit ] Water scarcity has many negative impacts on the environment, including lakes, rivers, wetlands and other fresh water resources.
The resulting water overuse that is related to water scarcity, often located in areas of irrigation agriculture, harms the environment in several ways including increased salinitynutrient pollutionand the loss of floodplains and wetlands.
Freshwater lakes such as the Aral Sea in central Asia have also suffered.Published: Mon, 5 Dec The PepsiCo headquarters are located in Purchase, New York. The company is in the food and beverage industry and is a public corporation. Programs for Scholars > Essay Contests.
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